FAQs - LeptoDB


What is Leptospirosis?

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease caused by genus Leptospira. Usually, it is transferred from animals to humans through direct contact with the urine of infected animals or environment (soil or water) contaminated with bacteria. It may turn epidemic during natural disasters and heavy rains and thus, emerging worldwide as an important public health problem in both tropical and subtropical countries.

Source: http://www.who.int/zoonoses/diseases/leptospirosis/en

How does Leptospirosis spread and which are the reservoirs ?

As listed by WHO, Leptospira may enter human body through cuts and abrasions in the skin, via intact mucous membranes (nose, mouth, eyes) and perhaps through waterlogged skin. They may occasionally enter the human body via the inhalation of droplets of urine or via drinking-water. Rodents, livestock and dogs are the main animal reservoirs. Leptospirosis may exhibit mild flu-like symptoms to serious disease in humans, with severe complications such as, kidney and liver failure, meningitis, respiratory distress and even death. Those affected mainly include farmers, people inhabiting slum areas, working with animals and water-related activities. For further information about mechanism of spread and pathogenesis, please refer to links:

http://www.searo.who.int/about/administration_structure/cds/CDS_leptospirosis-Fact_Sheet.pdf

http://www.who.int/zoonoses/diseases/lerg/en/index2.html

What is a serovar and a serotype? How many pathogenic serovars of Leptospira have been characterized?

The basic unit for categorizing of a species or sub-species of microbes on the basis of their characteristic antigenic make-up/antigenicity may be referred to as Serovar. Serogroup may be defined as serovars having antigenic similarities. Over 250 pathogenic serovars of Leptospira have been identified till date and all serovars have been divided into 25 serogroups.

What information LeptoDB offers for researchers?

LeptoDB is single platform, which provides extensive genomic and proteomic information of all known serovars of Leptospira, sequence features and accession of all the genes and proteins of these bacteria, phylogenetic study of all species, epitope information about each serogroups. The database is unique in the sense, that it provides useful information on predicted protein structures, CRISPR/Cas sites and literature mined primers.

Are the tools integrated in LeptoDB user-friendly?

Important user-friendly tools such as BLAST, JBrowse, Jmol and MUSCLE are integrated for the development of the database. BLAST search against entire set of genome data has been provided. Incorporation of JBrowse for both finished and unfinished genome has been done to provide elaborated LOCUS centric description of sequence or contig. Jmol has been added for the structural visualization of protein structures and MUSCLE for interactive multiple sequence alignment annotation and analysis.

What is the data source of each genome represented under genome section of LeptoDB

The data source of all the genomes covered in LeptoDB is National Centre for Biotechnology Information. In future, LeptoDB database will be updated from time to time based on the availability of resources.

How can I be helpful for constant improvement of LeptoDB ?

We will be highly delighted for suggestions and research contributions for upgrading and improving LeptoDB for future developments. We are open for further research collaborations. Please feel free to write us your feedback and queries, if any Contact Us.

For more information regarding clinical, Indian scenario and global data on Leptospirosis, please refer to:

http://www.ncdc.gov.in/writereaddata/linkimages/Leptospirosis1232331086.pdf

https://www.nhp.gov.in/disease/leptospirosis

https://www.cdc.gov/leptospirosis

http://clinicalestablishments.nic.in/WriteReadData/919.pdf

http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7377%3A2012-leptospirosis-informacion-detallada&catid=4784%3Aleptospirosis-contents&Itemid=39617&lang=en